Author: 羅烈師
•2014年7月14日 星期一,下午3:29

砂拉越的首都古晉得名自一條流經鎮上而注入砂拉越河的小溪,往下則開展為一個水道與港口眾多的三角洲。這市鎮距海岸20哩,係汶萊統治時期Pangiran Makota所開創,他係蘇丹所派遣至本地之代表,在布魯克(James Brook)來到古晉前幾年剛到任。此時,本地的人口除一小部份華商與其他境外東方人外,共有為數800的汶萊馬來人(Bruni Malays);砂拉越馬來人(Sarawak Malays)則住在Leda Tanah略遠稍高的Katupong,而他們的領袖是勇敢的拿督Patinggi Ali
在此特別說明汶萊馬來人與砂拉越馬來人之間的區別,前者稱為婆羅尼人(Borneans),後者則稱為新堯灣人(Siniawans),二者在外貌、舉止、甚至語言都有很大的差別。砂拉越目前婆羅人無多,大部份跟隨拉者木達哈辛(Rajah Muda Hasim1844年退職時返國,其他稍後也隨之遷往。古晉所有的馬來人,除了一小部份外來者外,都是砂拉越馬來人,也就是所謂新堯灣人的後代。
以上譯自Baring-Gould and Bampfylde, 1909, "A History of Sarawak under its Two White Rajahs 1839-1908", p64. London: Henry Sotheran. 敘述18397月作者剛到古晉時的見聞,原文如下:
Kuching, the capital of Sarawak, is so called from a small stream that runs through the town into the main river, that a few miles below expands and forms a delta of many channels and mouths. The town, which is seated some twenty miles from the open sea, was founded by Pangiran Makota, when Bruni rule was established in Sarawak, and he was sent down as the Sultan's representative a few years previously to the arrival of Mr. Brooke. At this time the population, with the exception of a few Chinese traders and other eastern foreigners, consisted entirely of Bruni Malays to the number of about 800. The Sarawak Malays lived at Katupong,' 2 a little higher up, and farther up again at Leda Tanah, under their head chief, the brave Datu Patinggi Ali.
A distinction must be made, which it will be as well to again note here, between the Malays of Bruni and those of Sarawak, in other works described — the former as Borneans, and the latter as Siniawans. They are very different in appearance, manners, and even in language. There are not many Brunis in Sarawak now. Most returned to their own country with Rajah Muda Hasim when he retired there in 1844, and others drifted thither later. All the Malays in Kuching, except a sprinkling of foreigners, are Sarawak Malays, the descendants of the so-called Siniawans.
這段短文的重點是描述白人拉者到達古晉時的族群政治狀況,然而對於關心新堯灣的人而言,新堯灣不是地名,而是一群馬來人的名稱,那真是太不可思議了。我大膽地猜測,新堯灣原是泛稱居於砂拉越上游(Upper Sarawka)之優勢馬來人,這群人在白人拉者第一場戰役中被擊敗,於是那場戰役所在之地便成了新堯灣,亦即從人群名變地名。

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